Development and Integration of Biocontrol Products in Branched Broomrape (Phelipanche ramosa) management in Tomato

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Development and Integration of Biocontrol Products in Branched Broomrape (Phelipanche ramosa) management in Tomato

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Summary Parasitic weeds of the genera Striga, Orobanche, and Phelipanche pose a severe problem for agriculture because they are difficult to control and are highly destructive to several crops. The present work was carried out during the period October, 2009 to February, 2012 to evaluate the potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to suppress P. ramosa on tomatoes and to investigate the effects of airdried powder and aqueous extracts from Euphorbia hirta on germination and haustorium initiation in Phelipanche ramosa. The work was divided into three parts: a survey of the indigenous mycorrhizal flora in Sudan, second, laboratory and greenhouse experiments (conducted in Germany and Sudan) to construct a base for the third part, which was a field trial in Sudan. A survey was performed in 2009 in the White Nile state, Sudan to assess AMF spore densities and root colonization in nine fields planted with 13 different important agricultural crops. In addition, an attempt was made to study the relationship between soil physico-chemical properties and AMF spore density, colonization rate, species richness and other diversity indices. The mean percentage of AMF colonization was 34%, ranging from 19-50%. The spore densities (expressed as per 100 g dry soil) retrieved from the rhizosphere of different crops were relatively high, varying from 344 to 1222 with a mean of 798. There was no correlation between spore densities in soil and root colonization percentage. A total of 45 morphologically classifiable species representing ten genera of AMF were detected with no correlation between the number of species found in a soil sample and the spore density. The most abundant genus was Glomus (20 species). The AMF diversity expressed by the Shannon-Weaver index was highest in sorghum (H\= 2.27) and Jews mallow (H\= 2.13) and lowest in alfalfa (H\= 1.4). With respect to crop species, the genera Glomus and Entrophospora were encountered in almost all crops, except for Entrophospora in alfalfa. Kuklospora was found only in sugarcane and sorghum. The genus Ambispora was recovered only in mint and okra, while mint and onion were the only species on which no Acaulospora was found. The hierarchical cluster analysis based on the similarity among AMF communities with respect to crop species overall showed that species compositions were relatively similar with the highest dissimilarity of about 25% separating three of the mango samples and the four sorghum samples from all other samples. Laboratory experiments studied the influence of root and stem exudates of three tomato varieties infected by three different Glomus species on germination of P. ramosa. Root exudates were collected 21or 42 days after transplanting (DAT) and stem exudates 42 DAT and tested for their effects on germination of P. ramosa seeds in vitro. The tomato varieties studied did not have an effect on either mycorrhizal colonization or Phelipanche germination. Germination in response to exudates from 42 day old mycorrhizal plants was significantly reduced in comparison to non-mycorrhizal controls. Germination of P. ramosa in response to root exudates from 21 day old plants was consistently higher than for 42 day-old plants (F=121.6; P<.0001 a="" a.="" about="" absoluta="" acaulospora="" accumulation="" adding="" addition="" additive="" adequaten="" advantageous="" affected.="" affordable="" after="" against="" agronomical="" agronomischen="" air-dried="" akutes="" all="" alle="" allen="" allerdings="" allgemein="" als="" also="" alte="" alten="" am="" ambispora="" amf="" amf-="" amf-diversit="" amf-gemeinschaften="" amf-kolonisierung="" amf-sporendichte="" amfartenzahl="" among="" an="" anbausystemen="" and="" angemessene="" angetroffen="" another="" anschlie="" anteil="" anwendbare="" anwendung="" applicable="" application="" applied="" approach="" aqueous="" arbeit="" arbuscular="" are="" arten="" artenreichtum="" artenzusammensetzungen="" as="" assessed.="" at="" auch="" auf="" aufgrund="" aufkommen="" aufkommen.="" aufkommenden="" auftraten.="" aus="" ausgesch="" ausgestst="" ausgetsben="" ausnahme="" ausnahmslos="" auswirkung="" auswirkungen="" b="" b.="" bank="" bank.="" banks="" basic="" basierend="" basis="" be="" because="" bedarf="" befall="" befallenen="" behandelt="" bei="" beimpft="" beimpfung="" bekannt="" bemisia="" besiedelung="" besonders="" betragen.="" betroffene="" betrug="" between="" beurteilen.="" bewerten.="" bewertet.="" beziehung="" biologie="" biology="" bis="" blumenerde="" boden="" bodenbearbeitung="" bodeneigenschaften="" bodenproben="" branches="" branching="" by="" bzw.="" c="" can="" cluster-analysen="" cm="" colonization="" colonization.="" combined="" comparable="" compared="" complete="" concentration="" conditioned="" conditioning="" considerable="" control="" corchorus="" correlated="" corresponding="" cover="" crop="" cropping="" crops="" dabei="" dar="" das="" dass="" dat="" dazu="" delayed="" dem="" den="" denen="" dependent="" der="" deren="" des="" design="" destruction="" destruktiv="" detected="" determine="" deutlich="" deutschland="" develop="" developed.="" developing="" die="" diese="" dieser="" dieses="" differ="" differences="" different="" diffusates="" diluted="" displayed="" diversit="" dmbq="" doktorarbeit="" drei="" dry="" due="" durch="" durchgef="" durchgefuehrt="" durchlaufs="" durchschnittliche="" durchweg="" during="" e.="" each="" easily="" ebenfalls="" effect="" effects="" effects.="" effekte.="" ein="" eine="" einem="" einen="" einer="" eines="" einf="" einfluss="" eingebrachte="" einhaltung="" einheimischen="" einsetzbar="" einzigen="" elicited="" elongation="" emerged="" emergence="" emergence.="" entdeckt="" entrophospora="" entsprechenden="" entwickeln.="" entwickelt="" entwicklung="" erfolg="" erfolgreich="" ergebnisse="" erh="" erheblich.="" erkunden.="" erreichte="" ersten="" ertrag="" erzeugt.="" es="" especially="" established="" etwa="" euphorbia="" euphorbia-extraktanwendungen="" euphorbia-extrakten="" experiment.="" experiments="" exploited="" exsudate="" extract="" extracts="" extracts.="" extrakt="" extrakte="" extraktkonzentration="" extremely="" f="" farmers="" farmers.="" fast="" februar="" feldern="" feldversuch="" feldversuche="" festgestellt="" festgestellt.="" festzustellen="" field="" filter="" first="" fliege="" fm="" fm-="" fm-anwendung="" for="" fr="" from="" fruchtbefalls="" fruchtfolge="" fruit="" fungi="" g="" g.="" gattung="" gattungen="" gefunden="" gefunden.="" gegen="" geliedert:="" gemessenen="" gering.="" germany="" germination="" germination.="" germlings="" gesammelt="" gesamttrockensubstanz="" gesamttrockensubstanzakkumulation="" gestaltung="" getetstet.="" gew="" giomus="" glasshouse="" glomus="" glomus-arten="" gr="" gr24="" growth="" grundlage="" grundlegenden="" h="" ha-="" ha-1="" ha-1-filter="" ha-1.="" haben.="" had="" haustorial="" haustorium="" haustoriuminitiation="" haustoriuminitiationen="" haustoriuminitierung="" haustoriumsinitiierung="" hervorrief.="" hierarchische="" higher="" highest="" hinaus="" hinzuf="" hirse="" hirta="" hirta-extrakt="" hirta-extrakte="" hoch="" however="" however.="" hygiene="" hygienema="" if="" ihrer="" im="" impfstoffen="" in="" increase="" increased="" increasing="" indicate="" induced="" induzierten="" infection="" infektion="" infestation="" infestation.="" infestations="" infested="" infizierter="" inhibierende="" initiation="" inoculants="" inoculated="" inoculation="" inokulation="" inokulierten="" insect="" insects="" insekten="" insektenbefall="" insektenbefall.="" insgeamt="" insgesamt="" interacted.="" interagierten.="" intraradices="" introduction="" invariably="" investigate="" investigated.="" is="" ist="" it="" jahr="" je="" jeder="" jedoch="" kann="" kassel="" keimten="" keimung="" keimungensraten="" keine="" kg="" klassifiziert="" knowledge="" kolonisation="" kolonisierung="" kombinierbarkeit="" kommerzielle="" konditioniert="" konditionierung="" konnte="" konnten="" konstruieren.="" kontrollen="" kontrollieren="" kontrollpflanzen="" kontrollpflanzenvariante="" kontrollstrategie="" konzentrationsabh="" korrelation="" korreliert.="" kuklospora="" kultur="" kulturen="" kulturpfanzen="" kulturpflanzenarten="" labor-="" laboratory="" laborexperimenten="" landwirte="" landwirtschaft="" leaf="" leicht="" leistung="" levels="" low="" lower="" lufttrockenem="" lufttrockenes="" luzerne="" luzerne.="" m="" mainly="" maintenance="" mallow="" management="" mango-proben="" manner.="" marketable="" marktf="" matter="" maximal="" maximalwerte="" may="" measured="" measures="" medium="" mehr="" meist="" method="" methoden="" mg="" miner="" minze="" mischen="" mit="" mittelwert="" mixed="" mixing="" more="" morphologisch="" mosseae="" most="" mostly="" mud="" multi-microbial="" multimikrobiellen="" muss="" mycorrhiza="" mycorrhizal="" mykorrhiza-schutzverfahren="" mykorrhizaarten="" mykorrhizaflora="" mykorrhizainokulierten="" mykorrhizapilzen="" mykorrhizawurzelbesiedlung="" mykorrhizierten="" mykorrhizierung="" n="" n-anwendung="" n-behandlungen.="" nach="" namely="" need="" needs="" neun="" nicht="" nicht-="" niedrigere="" niedrigsten="" nijmegen-1="" nile="" no="" non-mycorrhizal="" not="" notwendigen="" number="" nur="" ob="" oberen="" objective="" oder="" of="" ohne="" okra="" oktober="" olitorius="" on="" ones="" only="" optimalen="" optimiert="" optimum="" or="" organic="" organischer="" orobanche="" overall="" p="" p.="" parameter.="" parameters="" parameters.="" parasit="" parasite="" parasiten="" parasitensamen="" parasitic="" partially="" per="" performance="" perspektiven="" pflanzen="" pflanzen.="" pflanzenextrakten="" pflanzenrhizosph="" phelipanche="" phosphatspiegels="" phosphorus="" physikalischchemischen="" pilze="" plant="" plants="" plants.="" positiv="" positively="" pot="" pot.="" potential="" potenzial="" potting="" powder="" pr="" practical="" practices="" praktiken="" praxis="" pre-attachment="" present="" preventive="" pro="" problem="" processing="" progressively="" promotion="" proper="" protection="" provozierten="" pulver="" quality="" radicle="" ramosa="" ramosa-keimlinge="" ramosa.="" ranged="" reaktion="" recherche="" reduced="" reduction="" reduziert.="" reduzierte="" reihe="" relativ="" require="" residues="" respectively.="" response="" rest="" resulted="" results="" root="" rotation="" run="" saatgutkontrolle="" samen="" samenbank="" samenbanken="" samenbankniveau.="" schlamm="" schwer="" second="" seed="" seeds="" sein.="" serie="" series="" shannon-weaver-index="" sich="" sie="" significant="" significant.="" significantly="" signifikant="" signifikante="" signifikanten="" sind="" sind.="" slightly="" so="" soil="" sorghum="" sorghum-proben="" sorten="" sowohl="" species="" sporendichte="" sporendichten="" sprint="" st="" stage="" stammexsudate="" stammexsudaten="" starken="" starker="" state="" statistically="" statistisch="" steigende="" stellen="" stem="" stieg="" stimulants="" stimulanzien="" strategien="" strategies="" strategy="" striga="" strong="" study.="" stufe="" subsequently="" successful="" such="" sudan="" sudanese="" sudans="" sugar="" synthetic="" synthetischen="" systemansatzes="" systematic="" systems="" t="" tabaci="" tage="" targeting="" teile="" teilweise="" tendency="" tendenziell="" teuer="" than="" that="" the="" their="" there="" thesis="" this="" three="" through="" tillage="" time="" to="" tomaten="" tomaten-miniermotte="" tomatenpflanze="" tomatenpflanzen="" tomatenwachstumsparameter="" tomato="" tomatoes="" tomatoes.="" tools="" top="" topf="" topfen="" topfexperimente="" total="" treated="" treatments="" treatments.="" trockengewichte="" tubercle="" tubercles="" tuberkel="" tuberkeltrockengewicht="" tuta="" um="" un-inoculated="" und="" undertaken="" ungleichheiten="" uninokulierten="" universit="" university="" unter="" unternommen="" unterscheiden.="" unterschiede="" unterschiedliche="" unterschiedlichen="" untersuchen.="" untersucht.="" untersuchung="" until="" use="" used="" using="" v="" v.="" varied="" varierte="" variierte="" verd="" verdeutlicht="" vergleich="" vergleichbar="" verminderte="" verminderung="" vermischt.="" verringerte="" verschiedene="" verschiedenen="" verschiedener="" verst="" versuch="" verwendet.="" verz="" verzweigung="" vier="" vitro="" viz.="" vollst="" von="" vorkommende="" vorliegende="" vorteil="" w="" wachstumsparameter="" war="" waren="" waren.="" was="" wasser="" water="" ways="" weeds="" wei="" weight="" weights="" weil="" weise.="" weitere="" weiteren="" weiteres="" weiterhin="" well-known="" wenn="" werden="" werden.="" were="" when="" which="" while="" white="" whitefly="" wichtigen="" wie="" wiesen="" wildkr="" will="" winter="" wirken.="" wirkung="" wirkungen="" wissen="" with="" without="" wobei="" wohingegen="" wurde="" wurde.="" wurden="" wurzel-="" wurzelbesiedlung="" wurzelexsudate="" wurzelverl="" yield="" z.="" zahl="" zehn="" zeigen="" zeigten="" zeit="" zerst="" ziel="" zu="" zuckerherstellung="" zuckerrohr="" zuerst="" zugabe="" zum="" zunahm.="" zunahme="" zur="" zusammenfasung="" zweiten="" zwiebeln="" zwischen="">
ISBN
9783954042418
Vorm
Paperback
Uitgever
Cuvillier Verlag
Druk
1e
Verschenen
01-01-2012
Taal
Engels
Pagina's
198 pp.
Genre
Geografie & Landbouw
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